Asthma is considered a chronic disease that compromises the airways in the lungs. The airways allow air to enter and leave the lungs, when they are compromised there is difficulty breathing.1 By 2017, approximately 235 million people around the world suffered from asthma and it is a growing.2
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU START AN ASTHMA PROCESS?
If you are asthmatic, your airways are always inflamed. The long-term inflammation of the airways causes the airways walls to become irritated and swollen. During an asthma attack, the airways become more inflamed and the surrounding muscles can narrow when there is some factor that triggers the symptoms.1
The above generates a series of symptoms1 characteristic of an asthma episode. The most common are:
Wheezing (sound like a "whistle" or "whistle" when breathing)
Sensation of tightness in the chest
Asthma is a treatable disease. Although there is no cure at this time, with good treatment for asthma, patient and family education, patients can lead a normal and active life.3
DO YOU KNOW WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ASTHMA?
Asthma can be generated by both environmental factors and genetic factors. It is characteristic that when the ambient temperature drops, that is, at night or in the early hours of the morning, the symptoms of asthma worsen. In addition, it varies depending on several triggers.4
Genetics plays an important role in triggering a person's asthma. There is a high chance that you have asthma if your father or mother has asthma.5
Certain types of allergic conditions are related to asthmatic patients. Allergies can occur from the dandruff of animals, fungi inside and outside the home, to food. Any of the mentioned factors can be a trigger for an asthma episode.5
In the age between childhood and early childhood the lungs continue to develop, as this happens it has been shown that there are certain respiratory infections that cause inflammation and damage to the lung tissue. This damage that occurs, sometimes can affect lung function leaving as consequence the possibility of suffering from asthma.5
Exposure to certain chemicals and dusts can play an important role in adult-onset asthma. Contact with allergens, certain irritants or exposure to viral infections in childhood, when the immune system is not fully mature, has been linked to the development of asthma.5
CLASSIFICATION OF ASTHMA
The following classification of asthma depends on the severity and intensity of the symptoms. This is divided into four categories, you can see it in the following table.
1. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. (2019). Asthma. Retrieved from AAAAI: https://www.aaaai.org/global/spanish-materials/conditions-treatments/asthma
2. Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2017, agosto). 10 datos sobre el asma. Retrieved from OMS: https://www.who.int/features/factfiles/asthma/es/
3. National Asthma Council Australia. (2019, marzo). Understanding Asthma. Retrieved from National Asthma Council Australia: https://www.nationalasthma.org.au/understanding-asthma/what-is-asthma
4. National Jewish Health. (2019). Cómo identificar las causas del asma. Retrieved from NJH: https://www.nationaljewish.org/health-insights/espanol/como-identificar-las-causas-del-asma
5. American Lung Association. (2019, febrero). What causes asthma? Retrieved from https://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/asthma/asthma-symptoms-causes-risk-factors/what-causes-asthma.html
13. NorthShore University HealthSystem. (2018, setiembre). Clasificación del asma. Retrieved from NorthShore University HealthSystem: https://www.northshore.org/healthresources/encyclopedia/encyclopedia.aspx?DocumentHwid=hw161158&Lang=es-us